An: 35 N: 45
Who: Antoine J. Balard
Greek: bromos (stench). “Bromine” in different languages.
Occurs in compounds in sea water. World wide production is around 330 thousand tons per year. Main producers are the USA, Israel, the UK, Russia, France and Japan.
Universe: 0.007 ppm (by weight)
Used for water purification (swimming pools), manufacture of ethylene dibromide (C2H4Br2)(anti-knocking gasoline), bleaching, organic synthesis, solvent, analytical reagent, fire retardant for plastics, pharmaceuticals, shrink-proofing wool.
Bromine was discovered by Antoine Balard at the salt marshes of Montpellier in 1826, but was not produced in quantity until 1860. The French chemist and physicist Joseph-Louis Gay-Lussac suggested the name bromine due to the characteristic smell of the vapours.
Bromine is highly reactive and is a powerful oxidizing agent in the presence of water. It reacts vigorously with amines, alkenes and phenols as well as aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, ketones and acids (these are brominated by either addition or substitution reactions). With many of the metals and elements, anhydrous bromine is less reactive than hydrated bromine; however, dry bromine reacts vigorously with aluminium, titanium, mercury as well as alkaline earth metals and alkali metals.
May be fatal if inhaled, highly toxic b inhalation, ingestion or skin contact. Elemental bromine is a strong irritant and, in concentrated form, will produce painful blisters on exposed skin and especially mucous membranes. Even low concentrations of bromine vapour (from 10 ppm) can affect breathing, and inhalation of significant amounts of bromine can seriously damage the respiratory system.
Ammonium bromide NH4Br
Reactions of Bromine
Reactions with water
Occurrence and Production of Bromine
Bromine occurs in nature as bromide salts in very diffuse amounts in crustal rock. Due to leaching, bromide salts have accumulated in sea water (85 ppm), and may be economically recovered from brine wells and the Dead Sea (up to 5000 ppm).