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Cara Mudah Memahami Subnetting Jaringan dengan Metode Kotak (Box Method)

Subnetting merupakan teknik umum yang digunakan untuk membagi atau memecah suatu jaringan menjadi jaringan yang lebih kecil atau sederhana. Secara umum tujuan dari subnetting adalah untuk melakukan efisiensi alamat IP dan lebih mudah dalam perawatan maupun manajemen jaringan.

Metode kotak atau box method merupakan salah satu metode subnetting yang dilakukan dengan cara memvisualisasikan rincian subnet dan alamat IP ke jaringan yang lebih kecil dalam bentuk kotak-kotak sesuai dengan jumlah subnet dan host. Setiap kotak mewakili 1 subnet, sedangkan angka dalam kotak tersebut merupakan alamat host.

Setiap bagian dari subnet dalam kotak tersebut terdapat angka yang menunjukkan alamat jaringan (network Id) dan alamat broadcast (broadcast Id), sehingga untuk rentang IP yang tersedia adalah antara alamat Network Id dan Broadcast Id tersebut. Angka yang paling rendah dalam subnet tersebut merupakan Network Id sedangkan angka yang paling tinggi merupakan Broadcast Id.

Baca juga:

Dengan mengarsir atau mewarnai bagian kotak, kita dapat dengan mudah memecah subnet tanpa tumpang tindih dengan alamat IP yang tidak digunakan, seperti pada gambar berikut ini.

#1 Subnet Mask 255.255.255.0

Keterangan :

  • Total subnet : 1 subnet
  • Total host : 256 host
  • Host valid : 254 host valid

Contoh untuk alamat IP 192.168.1.0/24

Jumlah SubnetSubnet MaskNet IdIP host awalIP host akhirBroadcast Id
1255.255.255.0192.168.1.0192.168.1.1192.168.1.254192.168.1.255

#2 Subnet Mask 255.255.255.128

Keterangan :

  • Total subnet : 2 subnet
  • Total host : 128 host
  • Host valid : 126 host valid

Contoh untuk alamat IP 192.168.1.0/25

Jumlah SubnetSubnet MaskNet IdIP host awalIP host akhirBroadcast Id
1255.255.255.128192.168.1.0192.168.1.1192.168.1.126192.168.1.127
2255.255.255.128192.168.1.128192.168.1.1129192.168.1.254192.168.1.255

#3 Subnet Mask 255.255.255.192

Keterangan :

  • Total subnet : 4 subnet
  • Total host : 64 host
  • Host valid : 62 host valid

Contoh untuk alamat IP 192.168.1.0/26

Jumlah SubnetSubnet MaskNet IdIP host awalIP host akhirBroadcast Id
1255.255.255.192192.168.1.0192.168.1.1192.168.1.62192.168.1.63
2255.255.255.192192.168.1.64192.168.1.65192.168.1.126192.168.1.127
3255.255.255.192192.168.1.128192.168.1.129192.168.1.190192.168.1.191
4255.255.255.192192.168.1.192192.168.1.193192.168.1.254192.168.1.255

#4 Subnet Mask 255.255.255.224

Keterangan :

  • Total subnet : 8 subnet
  • Total host : 32 host
  • Host valid : 30 host valid

Contoh untuk alamat IP 192.168.1.0/27

Jumlah SubnetSubnet MaskNet IdIP host awalIP host akhirBroadcast Id
1255.255.255.224192.168.1.0192.168.1.1192.168.1.30192.168.1.31
2255.255.255.224192.168.1.32192.168.1.33192.168.1.62192.168.1.63
3255.255.255.224192.168.1.64192.168.1.65192.168.1.94192.168.1.95
4255.255.255.224192.168.1.96192.168.1.97192.168.1.126192.168.1.127
5255.255.255.224192.168.1.128192.168.1.129192.168.1.158192.168.1.159
6255.255.255.224192.168.1.160192.168.1.161192.168.1.190192.168.1.191
7255.255.255.224192.168.1.192192.168.1.193192.168.1.222192.168.1.223
8255.255.255.224192.168.1.224192.168.1.225192.168.1.254192.168.1.255

#5 Subnet Mask 255.255.255.240

Keterangan :

  • Total subnet : 16 subnet
  • Total host : 16 host
  • Host valid : 14 host valid

Contoh untuk alamat IP 192.168.1.0/28

Jumlah SubnetSubnet MaskNet IdIP host awalIP host akhirBroadcast Id
1255.255.255.240192.168.1.0192.168.1.1192.168.1.14192.168.1.15
2255.255.255.240192.168.1.16192.168.1.17192.168.1.30192.168.1.31
3255.255.255.240192.168.1.32192.168.1.33192.168.1.46192.168.1.47
4255.255.255.240192.168.1.48192.168.1.49192.168.1.62192.168.1.63
5255.255.255.240192.168.1.64192.168.1.65192.168.1.78192.168.1.79
6255.255.255.240192.168.1.80192.168.1.81192.168.1.94192.168.1.95
7255.255.255.240192.168.1.96192.168.1.97192.168.1.110192.168.1.111
8255.255.255.240192.168.1.112192.168.1.113192.168.1.126192.168.1.127
9255.255.255.240192.168.1.128192.168.1.129192.168.1.142192.168.1.143
10255.255.255.240192.168.1.144192.168.1.145192.168.1.158192.168.1.159
11255.255.255.240192.168.1.160192.168.1.161192.168.1.174192.168.1.175
12255.255.255.240192.168.1.176192.168.1.177192.168.1.190192.168.1.191
13255.255.255.240192.168.1.192192.168.1.193192.168.1.206192.168.1.207
14255.255.255.240192.168.1.208192.168.1.209192.168.1.222192.168.1.223
15255.255.255.240192.168.1.224192.168.1.225192.168.1.238192.168.1.239
16255.255.255.240192.168.1.240192.168.1.241192.168.1.254192.168.1.255

#6 Subnet Mask 255.255.255.248

Keterangan :

  • Total subnet : 32 subnet
  • Total host : 8 host
  • Host valid : 6 host valid

Contoh untuk alamat IP 192.168.1.0/29

Jumlah SubnetSubnet MaskNet IdIP host awalIP host akhirBroadcast Id
1255.255.255.248192.168.1.0192.168.1.1192.168.1.6192.168.1.7
2255.255.255.248192.168.1.8192.168.1.9192.168.1.14192.168.1.15
3255.255.255.248192.168.1.16192.168.1.17192.168.1.22192.168.1.23
4255.255.255.248192.168.1.24192.168.1.25192.168.1.30192.168.1.31
5255.255.255.248192.168.1.32192.168.1.33192.168.1.38192.168.1.39
6255.255.255.248192.168.1.40192.168.1.41192.168.1.46192.168.1.47
7255.255.255.248192.168.1.48192.168.1.49192.168.1.54192.168.1.55
8255.255.255.248192.168.1.56192.168.1.57192.168.1.62192.168.1.63
9255.255.255.248192.168.1.64192.168.1.65192.168.1.70192.168.1.71
10255.255.255.248192.168.1.72192.168.1.73192.168.1.78192.168.1.79
11255.255.255.248192.168.1.80192.168.1.81192.168.1.86192.168.1.87
12255.255.255.248192.168.1.88192.168.1.89192.168.1.94192.168.1.95
13255.255.255.248192.168.1.96192.168.1.97192.168.1.102192.168.1.103
14255.255.255.248192.168.1.104192.168.1.105192.168.1.110192.168.1.111
15255.255.255.248192.168.1.112192.168.1.113192.168.1.118192.168.1.119
16255.255.255.248192.168.1.120192.168.1.121192.168.1.126192.168.1.127
17255.255.255.248192.168.1.128192.168.1.129192.168.1.134192.168.1.135
18255.255.255.248192.168.1.136192.168.1.137192.168.1.142192.168.1.143
19255.255.255.248192.168.1.144192.168.1.145192.168.1.150192.168.1.151
20255.255.255.248192.168.1.152192.168.1.153192.168.1.158192.168.1.159
21255.255.255.248192.168.1.160192.168.1.161192.168.1.166192.168.1.167
22255.255.255.248192.168.1.168192.168.1.169192.168.1.174192.168.1.175
23255.255.255.248192.168.1.176192.168.1.177192.168.1.182192.168.1.183
24255.255.255.248192.168.1.184192.168.1.185192.168.1.190192.168.1.191
25255.255.255.248192.168.1.192192.168.1.193192.168.1.198192.168.1.199
26255.255.255.248192.168.1.200192.168.1.201192.168.1.206192.168.1.207
27255.255.255.248192.168.1.208192.168.1.209192.168.1.214192.168.1.215
28255.255.255.248192.168.1.216192.168.1.217192.168.1.222192.168.1.223
29255.255.255.248192.168.1.224192.168.1.225192.168.1.230192.168.1.231
30255.255.255.248192.168.1.232192.168.1.233192.168.1.238192.168.1.239
31255.255.255.248192.168.1.240192.168.1.241192.168.1.246192.168.1.247
32255.255.255.248192.168.1.248192.168.1.249192.168.1.254192.168.1.255

#7 Subnet Mask 255.255.255.252


Keterangan :

  • Total subnet : 64 subnet
  • Total host : 4 host
  • Host valid : 2 host valid

Contoh untuk alamat IP 192.168.1.0/30

Jumlah SubnetSubnet MaskNet IdIP host awalIP host akhirBroadcast Id
1255.255.255.248192.168.1.0192.168.1.1192.168.1.2192.168.1.3
2255.255.255.248192.168.1.4192.168.1.5192.168.1.6192.168.1.7
3255.255.255.248192.168.1.8192.168.1.9192.168.1.10192.168.1.11
4255.255.255.248192.168.1.12192.168.1.13192.168.1.14192.168.1.15
5255.255.255.248192.168.1.16192.168.1.17192.168.1.18192.168.1.19
6255.255.255.248192.168.1.20192.168.1.21192.168.1.22192.168.1.23
7255.255.255.248192.168.1.24192.168.1.25192.168.1.26192.168.1.27
8255.255.255.248192.168.1.28192.168.1.29192.168.1.30192.168.1.31
9255.255.255.248192.168.1.32192.168.1.33192.168.1.34192.168.1.35
10255.255.255.248192.168.1.36192.168.1.37192.168.1.38192.168.1.39
111255.255.255.248192.168.1.40192.168.1.41192.168.1.42192.168.1.43
12255.255.255.248192.168.1.44192.168.1.45192.168.1.46192.168.1.47
13255.255.255.248192.168.1.48192.168.1.49192.168.1.50192.168.1.51
14255.255.255.248192.168.1.52192.168.1.53192.168.1.54192.168.1.55
15255.255.255.248192.168.1.56192.168.1.57192.168.1.58192.168.1.59
16255.255.255.248192.168.1.60192.168.1.61192.168.1.62192.168.1.63
17255.255.255.248192.168.1.64192.168.1.65192.168.1.66192.168.1.67
18255.255.255.248192.168.1.68192.168.1.69192.168.1.70192.168.1.71
19255.255.255.248192.168.1.72192.168.1.73192.168.1.74192.168.1.75
20255.255.255.248192.168.1.76192.168.1.77192.168.1.78192.168.1.79
21255.255.255.248192.168.1.80192.168.1.81192.168.1.82192.168.1.83
22255.255.255.248192.168.1.84192.168.1.85192.168.1.86192.168.1.87
23255.255.255.248192.168.1.88192.168.1.89192.168.1.90192.168.1.91
24255.255.255.248192.168.1.92192.168.1.93192.168.1.94192.168.1.95
25255.255.255.248192.168.1.96192.168.1.97192.168.1.98192.168.1.99
26255.255.255.248192.168.1.100192.168.1.101192.168.1.102192.168.1.103
27255.255.255.248192.168.1.104192.168.1.105192.168.1.106192.168.1.107
28255.255.255.248192.168.1.108192.168.1.109192.168.1.110192.168.1.111
29255.255.255.248192.168.1.112192.168.1.113192.168.1.114192.168.1.115
30255.255.255.248192.168.1.116192.168.1.117192.168.1.118192.168.1.119
31255.255.255.248192.168.1.120192.168.1.121192.168.1.122192.168.1.123
32255.255.255.248192.168.1.124192.168.1.125192.168.1.126192.168.1.127
33255.255.255.248192.168.1.128192.168.1.129192.168.1.130192.168.1.131
34255.255.255.248192.168.1.132192.168.1.133192.168.1.134192.168.1.135
35255.255.255.248192.168.1.136192.168.1.137192.168.1.138192.168.1.139
36255.255.255.248192.168.1.140192.168.1.141192.168.1.142192.168.1.143
37255.255.255.248192.168.1.144192.168.1.145192.168.1.146192.168.1.147
38255.255.255.248192.168.1.148192.168.1.149192.168.1.150192.168.1.151
39255.255.255.248192.168.1.152192.168.1.153192.168.1.154192.168.1.155
40255.255.255.248192.168.1.156192.168.1.157192.168.1.158192.168.1.159
41255.255.255.248192.168.1.160192.168.1.161192.168.1.162192.168.1.163
42255.255.255.248192.168.1.164192.168.1.165192.168.1.166192.168.1.167
43255.255.255.248192.168.1.168192.168.1.169192.168.1.170192.168.1.171
44255.255.255.248192.168.1.172192.168.1.173192.168.1.174192.168.1.175
45255.255.255.248192.168.1.176192.168.1.177192.168.1.178192.168.1.179
46255.255.255.248192.168.1.180192.168.1.181192.168.1.182192.168.1.183
47255.255.255.248192.168.1.184192.168.1.185192.168.1.186192.168.1.187
48255.255.255.248192.168.1.188192.168.1.189192.168.1.190192.168.1.191
49255.255.255.248192.168.1.192192.168.1.193192.168.1.194192.168.1.195
50255.255.255.248192.168.1.196192.168.1.197192.168.1.198192.168.1.199
51255.255.255.248192.168.1.200192.168.1.201192.168.1.202192.168.1.203
52255.255.255.248192.168.1.204192.168.1.205192.168.1.206192.168.1.207
53255.255.255.248192.168.1.208192.168.1.209192.168.1.210192.168.1.211
54255.255.255.248192.168.1.212192.168.1.213192.168.1.214192.168.1.215
55255.255.255.248192.168.1.216192.168.1.217192.168.1.218192.168.1.219
56255.255.255.248192.168.1.220192.168.1.221192.168.1.222192.168.1.223
57255.255.255.248192.168.1.224192.168.1.225192.168.1.226192.168.1.227
58255.255.255.248192.168.1.228192.168.1.229192.168.1.230192.168.1.231
59255.255.255.248192.168.1.232192.168.1.233192.168.1.234192.168.1.235
60255.255.255.248192.168.1.236192.168.1.237192.168.1.248192.168.1.239
61255.255.255.248192.168.1.240192.168.1.241192.168.1.242192.168.1.243
62255.255.255.248192.168.1.244192.168.1.245192.168.1.246192.168.1.247
63255.255.255.248192.168.1.248192.168.1.249192.168.1.250192.168.1.251
64255.255.255.248192.168.1.252192.168.1.253192.168.1.254192.168.1.255

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